Steel is an alloy that consists of a combination of the element iron and the amount of carbon that ranges from 0.2% to 2.1%. The carbon amounts in the steel alloy play an active role in the classification of the steel. Although carbon is generally the alloying agent of iron, different elements such as magnesium, chromium, vanadium and tungsten can be used in alloying the iron element. Carbon and other elements act as hardening agents by preventing the crystal lattices in the iron atom from slipping and crossing each other. The varying amounts of alloying elements in the steel and the forms in which they are present (dissolved elements, precipitate phase) control the properties of the steel such as hardness, ductility and stress point. Although steels with high carbon content are harder and stronger than iron, they are less ductile. High-carbon alloys are known as cast iron because of their low melting points and casting capabilities. Steel is also distinguished as wrought iron, which contains small amounts of carbon but includes iron slags. Both distinctive factors increase the rust-inhibiting properties of steels and provide better weldability. The main stages of modern steel production are outlined below.
Mixing, Melting in the pot, Injection in the pot, Degassing, Basic Oxygen Furnace
Production, Fabrication and Finishing
Finally, the final shape are given to steel by secondary forming processes.